Bread: About 40 ppm of this raw
material adds a crusty note to bread
flavors, although, once again, levels of
use can vary radically.
Vegetable Flavors Toasted onion: The attractive note of reshly cooked onions can be achieved by the addition of around 30 ppm of this ingredient to onion flavors. Sweet corn: The cooked note of sweet corn flavors can be enhanced by the judicious addition of around 100 ppm of 2-acetyl pyrazine. Popcorn: 2-Acetyl pyrazine is an
even better fit in popcorn flavors.
Levels can vary, but up to 1,000 ppm
can be used without problems.
Nevertheless, they can benefit from
the addition of around 20 ppm.
Clam: Clam and many other
seafood flavors require only traces of
2-acetyl pyrazine, typically around
Hydrolyzed vegetable protein:
2-Acetyl pyrazine helps to recreate
this challenging flavor type at a use
level around 100 ppm.
Cheese: This ingredient is only
suitable for cooked style cheeses such
as gruyere and cheddar, providing
an interesting note at around 5 ppm.
Much higher levels can be used to
recreate toasted cheese flavors.
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Pandan: 2-Acetyl pyrazine can easily
completely dominate pandan flavors.
Levels of use vary dramatically, but
even levels as high as 5,000 ppm can
Guava: Roasted notes may not
immediately spring to mind as a
natural aspect of guava flavors, and
the effect here is necessarily subtle.
Levels vary, but around 2 ppm can
add an unusual effect.
Papaya: The same comments
apply to papaya flavors, but similarly
low levels, around 2 ppm can be
Toasted coconut: The addition
of 100 ppm of 2-acetyl pyrazine is a
good place to start when recreating
this highly attractive flavor profile.
Meat, Seafood and Other Savory
Beef: Roast beef flavors can take
advantage of higher levels than boiled
beef flavors; 200 ppm is a good starting point.
Chicken: 2-Acetyl pyrazine is
useful in chicken flavors, but the
optimum dose rate, around 70 ppm,
is rather lower than in other profiles.
Bacon: Useful levels in bacon flavors range from 10 ppm to 50 ppm.
Pork: Pork flavors, illogically, use
higher levels of this raw material than
bacon flavors; 80 ppm is a good starting point.
Liver: Cooked liver flavors are
difficult to create, and the roasted
note is certainly not a key character.