Beef, Roast: trans-2-Octenal can be used in all
types of beef flavors, including boiled beef, but it
is obviously most effective in roast beef profiles. A
good starting point is 150 ppm.
Bread: Bread flavors, in their many different
guises, are given more lift and authenticity by quite
high levels, around 200 ppm, of this material. It is
arguably most effective in pizza base flavors.
Chicken: The unsaturated aldehyde notes play a
vital role in all chicken flavors, and the best effect
is, in my opinion, achieved by using a combination
including about 100 ppm of trans-2-octenal.
Corn, Toasted: Corn chip and cornflake flavors
both make good use of the fatty note of this ingredient. Ideal levels vary, depending on the profile
required, but 100 ppm is a good place to start.
Garlic and Onion, Fried: Neither garlic nor
onion flavors have much call for an intrusive fatty
note, but fried or toasted versions are certainly
helped by modest levels, around 20 ppm in both
instances, of trans-2-octenal.
Grill: At the other extreme, grill and barbeque
flavors require much higher levels of trans-2-octenal,
usually in conjunction with other unsaturated
aldehydes. Even a level as high as 300 ppm is not out
Ham: trans-2-Octenal, added at a level in the
region of 100 ppm, is particularly helpful in ham
flavors. It conveys something of the fatty character
from the meat itself and also makes the cooked
aspect of the flavor profile appear to be less “boiled.”
Mushroom, Cooked: Many chemicals could
potentially help to build the cooked character of
mushrooms, which has an intrinsic rawness, but
this ingredient stands out because it combines well
with 1-octen-3-ol and reduces the perception of raw
mushrooms. A level of 50 ppm is effective.
Potato: Cooked potato flavors cover a wide range
of different profiles and trans-2-octenal is decidedly
more in fried potato flavors than in mashed potato
flavors. Levels of use can run as high as 200 ppm.
Rice: The same comments are obviously equally
true for rice flavors but, even in plain boiled rice
flavors, trans-2-octenal can be used to good effect at
a significant level, around 50 ppm.
Seafood: This ingredient is surprisingly useful in
white fish flavors at levels in the region of 100 ppm.
It also performs well at a similar level of use in all
types of seafood flavors, especially crab and lobster.
Tomato, Fresh: It might seem better to use trans-
2-octenal in cooked or dried tomato flavors but in
reality it actually performs best in fresh flavors. A
good starting point is 100 ppm.
Hazelnut: trans-2-Octenal is a very useful addition to all categories of nut flavors, but it works
particularly well in hazelnut and praline flavors. A
level of 200 ppm is ideal in most profiles.
Peanut: The same comments are true of peanut
flavors but the ideal level does vary depending on the
profile. Generally, the best level of addition is a little
lower for hazelnut flavors, nearer 100 ppm.
Walnut: Walnut flavors, just like hazelnut flavors,
can make good use of quite high levels of trans-
2-octenal and 200 ppm is also the ideal level of
addition in this flavor category.