will depend on the velocity of the ion, and therefore
is a measure of its mass-to-charge ratio. From this
ratio and known experimental parameters, one can
identify the ion. 8
Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (2D
GC–TOF MS) is an additional choice for screening
complex mixtures, such as flavorings. The enhanced
separation capacity offered by the coupling of two
columns of different selectivity, combined with the
highly sensitive mass spectral identification, provides
a high-performance solution for rapid screening of
flavorings. Despite the superior separation afforded
by 2D GC, the identification of individual compounds in complex samples remains challenging
when compounds have weak molecular ions and/or
similar spectra using conventional (70 eV) ionization, such as sesquiterpenes. As shown in F- 6, 2D
GC–TOF MS demonstrates the use of soft electron
ionization to address these issues. 9
To summarize, there are diverse extraction,
sampling and chromatographic methods which can
be used for the development of flavorings, and the
right ones should be chosen for each type of required
flavour. In addition to these, the MS system should
be also considered, using EI, CI of TOF methods.
1. A. Verzera, A. Trozzi, I. Stagno-d’Alcontres and A. Cotroneo.
On the genuineness of citrus essential oils. Part XLVII. The
composition of volatile fraction of some varieties of sweet
orange oils. J. Essent. Oil Res., 8, 159-170 (1996); Perfumer &
Flavorist 26, 5, 52, (2000).
2. Flavor and Fragrance Analysis; GERSTEL Solutions Worldwide
– No. 14
3. Nie, Yunyun & Kleine-Benne, Eike. Using Three Types of
Twister Phases for Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction of Whisky, Wine
and Fruit Juice. App Notes, 3 (2011).
4. Ridgway, Kathy. Flavour Analysis Comparison and Choices of
Extraction Techniques; Reading Scientific Services Ltd. (2014).
5. Dass, C. (2007). Fundamentals of contemporary mass
spectrometry. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley. doi: 10.1002/0470118490
6. Munson, M. B., & Field, F. H. (1966). Chemical Ionization Mass
Spectrometry. I. General Introduction. Journal of American
Chemistry, 88( 12), 2621-2630. doi: 10.1021/ja00964a001
7. Tobias Kind; GC-TOF applications of accurate mass
measurements (2010). American Society of Mass Spectrometry.
Flavor, Fragrance and Foodstuff Interest Group
8. Wolff, M. M., & Stephens, W. E. (1953). A Pulsed Mass
Spectrometer with Time Dispersion. Review of Scientific
Instruments, 24( 8), 616-617. doi: 10.1063/1.1770801.
F- 6. Spectral comparisons between 70 eV and 12 eV
for Benzyl benzoate
F- 5. Comparison between electron ionization (70 eV) and
chemical ionization (Using NH3) MS spectra of the same peak