Astringency & Fattiness, the Mechanisms of Liking and New Flavor Materials:
SFC and CSA at Monell
With a focus toward chemosensory effects in flavor and taste
perception, the Chemical Sources Association (CSA) and Society
of talks from the specialists at Monell Chemical Senses Center.
and astringent sensations lie at opposite ends of the sensory
spectrum, yet one affects the perception of the other. Tribology,
or the science and engineering of interacting surfaces in relative motion, is required to understand these phenomena—in
this case, the movement of the mouth. How do astringency and
fattiness play out throughout an eating experience? This is the
subject of Des Gachon’s work. Astringency, interestingly, inten-sifies with repeated exposures.
To better understand this effect, researchers looked at the
evolution of perceived astringency of grape seed extract in three
different concentrations. On a chart, the astringency intensity
curve started at a constant value, then rose to a plateau. Thus, a
certain number of sips of the extract brought sensory responses
to a maximum level, after which perception remained constant.
Maxima were dependent on concentration level.
In another study, participants ate salami and rinsed with
oolong tea. There was a more significant growth of astringency
sensation with multiple sips of the liquid when not paired with
fatty food, indicating that fat reduced buildup of astringency.
Fattiness was less pronounced after drinking tea. Increased
fatty sensation resulted from repeated fatty food consumption
without rinsing. At the same time, astringent foods provided
pleasant cleanness in-mouth by removing fatty mouth coating. Obviously, said Des Gachon, balance can be created with
Next, attendees learned about chemosensors—particularly,
taste cells—in the alimentary tract. Taste cells in the gut are able
to integrate physiological responses to digestion and respond
to sugars, sweeteners and amino acids, causing insulin release.
There are similar cells in the pancreas, which of course has
implications for diseases such as diabetes. The question then
is: can humans distinguish between sugar sweet and non-caloric
sweet in the gut?
Finally,;Marcy;Pelchat;discussed;food;neophobia and the
mechanisms for liking. She noted that mere exposure to a food
Sarah Forbis and Dave Moats (both Alfrebro)
increased liking, as first demonstrated by L.L. Birch and D. W.
Marlin in the amusingly titled 1982 paper, “I Don’t Like It; I
Never Tried It.” Up to 20 exposures can markedly increase lik-
found the same results with tropical fruit juices. While calories
and sweetness are not wholly necessary to increase liking, there
is a notable boost. Testing unsweetened Japanese teas on 48
young adult subjects, liking did increase in small, but significant
that have been paired with calories supplied to the stomach in
absence of oral sensory cues, as detailed by Scalafani et al. in
1993. If pairing unliked teas with glucose and sucralose can
improve liking, then flavor-nutrient learning can indeed enhance
liking for new foods.
The event also provided an ingredient talk from Gillian
Bleimann and Barry Dowles of Berjé, who outlined current
sourcing issues for geranium in Egypt, cardamom fine fragrance applications, palmarosa price pressures, garlic oil from
China and Mexico, among other issues. They also discussed a
range of materials, including grapefruit flower, which is olfac-tively similar to neroli, with a floral undertonea; and French
seaweed absolute, which is interesting for mouthfeel and is a
hit in perfumery.
The CSA also presented several flavor materials from FEMA
GRAS 25 and 26. b-Naphthyl methyl ether (FEMA# 4704),
not currently found in nature, is suggested for use at 1–3 ppm.
It was presented at 5 ppm in 5% sugar water. In that dilution,
the material imparted a very strong grape, fruity, wine, cherry,
perfumey, orange blossom, cherry, fusel, powdery tealike honey
character. d- Tridecalactone (FEMA# 4685), not found in nature,
was presented at 20 ppm in 5% sugar water and was creamy,
oily, coconutlike, with a milky-dairy mouthfeel. The material
can be used at around 100 ppm.
Keep track of future events at www.perfumerflavorist.com/
Robert Margolskee (Monell Chemical Senses Center)
aRead more about this material in: F Buccellato, Grapefruit Flower. Perfum
Flavor, p 24, March (2013)