Apricot: The same comments are true for apricot
flavors, but the best level is lower, around 100 ppm.
Other Fruit Flavors
Blackberry: An addition of 1,000 ppm of hexanal
has a significant counterbalancing effect when set
against the typical heavy, musk notes in ripe blackberry flavors.
Blackcurrant: Slightly lower levels, nearer 800
ppm, are equally effective in authentic blackcurrant
flavors, adding freshness.
Blueberry: Blueberry flavors typically have dominant floral notes and this ingredient can help to add
freshness to this category. The ideal level of addition
is around 1,000 ppm.
Grape: Hexanal is most effective in white grape
flavors, which have some structural similarity to
blueberry flavors. A good starting point would be
Raspberry: My ideal raspberry flavor combines
the contrasting attributes of overripe (candy and
berry notes) and fresh (green and unripe notes) in
one flavor. These extremes may be unlikely companions in nature, but they produce a very attractive
profile. An addition of 1,000 ppm of hexanal helps
achieve this balancing act without specifically
tipping the flavor into unripe territory.
Strawberry: The green complex of a good strawberry flavor can be quite complex and this ingredient
only plays a secondary role. A level of 100 ppm is
Hazelnut: Used carefully, hexanal can add
welcome freshness to all nut flavors, but high levels
can easily lead to unpleasant rawness. The ideal
level of addition to hazelnut flavors depends on the
profile, but 300 ppm is a reasonable starting point.
Peanut: Similar caution is required when adding
this ingredient to peanut flavors and 300 ppm is also
a good initial level. Differing levels of roast notes
may modify this recommendation a little.
Walnut: Of all nut profiles, hexanal is probably
most helpful in walnut flavors. This flavor category
can usefully absorb higher levels of addition, around
500 ppm, without becoming raw.
Pistachio and Almond: Authentic almond and pistachio flavors only need a moderate level of addition
of this ingredient to give pleasant lift and freshness.
An addition of 200 ppm is a good starting point.
Bread: Freshly baked bread notes are quite
elusive, complex and challenging to recreate. A
subtle addition of around 100 ppm of hexanal can be
helpful, even if it is far from being a dominant note.
Butter: Use of hexanal in dairy flavors is interesting, but also rather limited. A modest addition of 100
ppm to fresh butter flavors, however, can be quite
Potato: Cooked potato flavors are not especially
subtle and single chemicals can easily dominate,
making the effect disturbingly artificial. An addition
of 1,000 ppm of hexanal is effective toward adding
a fresh vegetal note and offsetting dominant sulfur
potato, boiled or fried notes.
Rum: Hexanal is only a minor component of
rum flavors and is much more at home in dark rum
profiles than is light rum profiles. A level of 50 ppm
is all that is required to add a pleasant element of
Tea: In contrast, this ingredient is quite prominent in tea flavors. The fresh effect of levels as high
as 1,000 ppm works well in green tea flavors and the,
somewhat lower, level of 400 ppm gives a pleasant
contrast to floral black tea flavors.
Whisky: The effect of this ingredient in
whisky flavors is very similar to the effect in
rum flavors and the ideal level of addition is
also similar, around 50 ppm.
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