Grape: Now, we are away from the savory category it gets quite hard to see the rationale for adding
an amine note. This is especially true for fruit flavors,
but a trace, around 0.1 ppm, of sec-Butylamine has a
surprisingly realistic effect in Concord grape flavors.
As a side benefit, it would make a flavor devilishly
difficult to match!
Kiwi: If grape flavor was hard to visualize than
kiwi is even more a stretch of the imagination.
Nevertheless, 0.1 ppm of sec-Butylamine is equally
intriguing in this flavor category
Malt: With malt flavors, we are on more solid
ground and a moderate addition of 2 ppm of this
amine adds lift and realism.
Milk, Condensed: sec-Butylamine is obviously
effective in cheese flavors, but it can also work in
other dairy flavors. Condensed milk is probably the
most obvious and 0.2 ppm is a good level to try.
Rhubarb: Now we are back on more dangerous
ground, but 0.1 ppm of this amine is quite effective
in lifting rhubarb flavors, especially those intended
Tangerine: sec-Butylamine is quite interesting in
all citrus flavors, but it is most effective in tangerine
and mandarin flavors. Only a trace, around 0.1 ppm,
is required but the effect is intriguing.
Whiskey: In the same way, it is quite interesting
to add this amine to any distilled spirit or even wine
flavor, but it really comes into its own in whiskey
flavors. Half a ppm is a good level of addition.
From this brief comparison, it is evident
that there are several viable alternatives to
trimethylamine, but my personal favorite is sec-Butylamine. It works well in a wide range of flavors,
is relatively heat stable and does not have any
significant off-notes at higher levels.
n-Butylamine (FEMA# 3130, CAS# 109-73-9) A
good alternative, significantly more heat stable.
isobutylamine (FEMA# 4239, CAS# 78-81-9)
Probably a little better than n-butylamine.
sec-Butylamine (FEMA# 4240, CAS# 13952-
84-6) In my opinion the best alternative, more heat
stable and free from musty notes at high levels.
N,N-Dimethylphenethylamine (FEMA# 4248,
CAS# 19352-01-9) Performs very well in shellfish
Hexylamine (FEMA# 4243, CAS# 111-26-2) Heat
stable but quite musty at higher levels.
2-Methybutylamine (FEMA# 4241, CAS# 96-15-1)
Quite effective in fish sauce flavors but musty at
3-Methylbutylamine (FEMA# 3219, CAS# 107-
85-7) Also quite musty at higher levels.
2-Phenylethylamine (FEMA# 3220,
CAS#64-04-0) Interesting combination of fishy and
rose nuances, especially effective in cocoa and
some fruit flavors.
isopropylamine (FEMA# 4238, CAS# 75-31-0)
Good character but not much of an improvement on
trimethylamine in respect of volatility.
Triethylamine (FEMA# 4246, CAS# 121-44-8) A
good alternative to trimethylamine, more heat stable
and attractive at a range of concentrations.
Trimethylamine oxide (FEMA# 4245,
CAS# 1184-78-7) A trimethylamine generator, solving
in part the stability problem but still difficult to dose
Tripropylamine (FEMA# 4247, CAS# 102-69-2)
Only really useful in combination with other amines.