Blackberry: The ideal level of addition of pent-3-
en-2-one in blackberry flavors is moderate, around
200 ppm. At this level it does not impart an obviously ethereal character but it lifts and brightens the
profile and adds impact to what can often be a rather
heavy flavor category.
Blackcurrant: Deciding on the best level of addition of pent-3-en-2-one in blackcurrant flavors is
subjective to an unusual extent. More realistic profiles
only need a low level, in the region of 50 ppm. More
traditional, buchu oil-based, flavors can accommodate higher levels to good effect, up to 200 ppm.
Blueberry: This chemical is more at home in
blueberry flavors than in any other berry category.
A good starting point is 300 ppm, but even higher
levels works well in very floral flavors. Wild blueberry or bilberry flavors can also make good use of
Raspberry: Raspberry flavors, very much like
blackberry flavors, are best served by around 200
ppm of pent-3-en-2-one. At this level the effect of the
berry and pear-like esters is enhanced and lifted.
Strawberry: One of the challenges of creating
realistic strawberry flavors is balancing the ethyl and
methyl esters. A level of 100 ppm of pent-3-en-2-one
enhances the brightness of the methyl esters without
imposing a harsh effect.
Other fruit flavors
Apricot: Esters do not play a dominant role in
apricot flavors and it can be hard to add attack to a
profile that is so dominated by lactones. A level of
150 ppm of pent-3-en-2-one is very effective.
Fig: Fig flavors are an interesting but minor
category. This ingredient helps to overcome the
inherently heavy profile at around 50 ppm in realistic
Orange: Several top notes can be used to
brighten and freshen orange flavors based on orange
oil. An addition of 50 ppm of pent-3-en-2-one works
well in combination with the usual suspects, such as
Peach: Peach flavors have similar issues to apricot
flavors and a similar level, around 150 ppm, of this
raw material is equally effective.
Beef: Savory flavors derive as much benefit from
pent-3-en-2-one as fruit flavors and the use of this
ingredient simultaneously lifts roast beef flavors and
makes individual sulfur top notes less obvious and
intrusive. A level of 150 ppm is a good starting point.
Cheese: This ingredient can be used in all dairy
flavors but it is most effective in cheese flavors. The
ideal level of addition in a typical Cheddar cheese
flavor is 100 ppm. The effect in toasted cheese flavors
is also interesting and the level of use is similar.
Chicken: Chicken flavors, both roast and boiled,
benefit more than any other savory category from
the addition of pent-3-en-2-one. The effect is to add
impact and also to make the ubiquitous meaty/coffee
sulfur character much less artificial tasting. A level of
300 ppm is ideal.
Rice: Cooked rice flavors also suffer from overly
dominant sulfur notes, in this case aromas that have
an unsubtle resemblance to aged pet hamsters. A
level of 200 ppm of this component brighten and
rebalances the profile.
Seafood: Pent-3-en-2-one is helpful in all flavors
associated with the sea. Fish flavors benefit most and
200 ppm is a good level of addition in this category.
Seafood flavors, such as crab, also benefit but at a
lower level, around 100 ppm.
Smoke: Smoke flavors present an interesting
challenge and the level of authenticity seems to
hinge most on the exact balance of phenolic components. That said, 200 ppm of this chemical is a very
Cocoa and chocolate: The ideal level of addition of pent-3-en-2-one in cocoa flavors is 200 ppm,
shading down to 100 ppm in typical milk chocolate flavors.
Coffee: An addition of 100 ppm is also a good
level of use in coffee flavors. The effect is similar to
that in chicken flavors, adding lift and taming the
The character of this
chemical can be best
described as ethereal. It
has a very powerful impact
up front and lifts and
brightens any applicable