Molasses and brown sugar: The best level of use
in these two flavor categories is, surprisingly, the
same, around 100 ppm.
Tea: This is not at all true for tea flavors, black tea
flavors are lifted nicely by a modest addition of only
100 ppm but green tea flavors are vastly improved by
much higher levels, nearer 500 ppm.
Hazelnut: Nut flavors contain a multitude of
aliphatic ketones, many of them unsaturated and
a significant number with the double bond in the
3 position and the ketone group in the 2 position.
The profile of pent-3-en-2-one could not exactly be
described as nutty but nut flavors are the closest
this neglected little chemical comes to a starring
role. A level of 1,000 ppm is a good starting point in
Pandan: Pandan flavors suffer a little from the
unfortunate hamster association mentioned earlier
in respect of rice flavors. An addition of 100 ppm is a
good level of use in this category.
Peanut: Pent-3-en-2-one can be used in all nut
flavors but peanut flavors are probably the closest fit
after hazelnut flavors. A level of 500 ppm works well
in all the different styles of peanut flavors.
Peppermint: I am not aware of this chemical
having ever been found in peppermint oil but the ser-
endipitous effect of adding 100 ppm to peppermint
flavors in interesting, lifting the profile, attractively.
Rum: All categories of fermented flavors can be
improved by low levels of addition of pent-3-en-2-
one but rum is the most obvious category. Dark rum
flavors are best served by 200 ppm and light rum
flavors by 100 ppm.
Wine: Both red and white wine flavors are
improved by the addition of 100 ppm of pent-3-en-
2-one, but the effect is most beneficial in red wine
flavors which, to my mind, are far and away the
more difficult challenge of the two.